Concept Of Federal Development In Nepal

The federal system or federalism is a political system where a country is divided into several autonomous states.

Each state in the federal system has its own government which is directed by a central federal government. Primarily, there are three working bodies i.e. Central Government, State Government and Local bodies in the federal system.

Nepal was then declared as the Democratic Federal Republic by the Interim Constitution-2063 BS. Currently, Nepali is divided into seven autonomous states. However, the naming of all the provinces hasn’t been finalized. Federalism in Nepal is quite a in progress.


Administrative divisions of Nepal.

Nepal has been divided into seven autonomous states or provinces of which following are the names.

Provinces of Nepal with their respective capital.

Province NameCapital
Province Number 1Biratnagar
Province Number 2Janakpur
Bagmati ProvinceHetauda
Gandaki ProvincePokhara
Province Number 5Butwal
Karnali ProvinceBirendranagar
Sudurpaschim ProvinceDhangadhi

There are some differences between the Central (Federal) government and the Provincial (State) government. Some of the differences have been highlighted below.

Difference Between Federal (Central) Government and Provincial (State) Government.

Central GovernmentProvincial Government
Central government exercise the power of defense, interstate relationship and foreign policies.State government exercise power of making decisions on health, education, trade, etc.
Central government acts as the head and may give or may not give powers to state government.State government has to follow the commands of central government.
Central government is ruled by president or prime minister.Provincial government is ruled by chief misters or governors.
It runs big hydro power, multi provincial projects.It preserves cultures, arts, languages, heritages, etc.
Central government manages national security and military stuffs.State government manages state security force and maintains public security.

Federalism comes up with many advantages. Some of the advantages of federal system (Federalism) are listed below.

Advantages of the Federal System

  • Conflicts and problems can be solved at the local level. No need to drag the central government in every small matter.
  • Maximum utilization of means and resources.
  • No need to depend on the central government for everything.
  • Public participation is prioritized.
  • Healthy competition between different states of a country enhances the development.
  • Local tourism, culture, tradition, and heritage will be well managed and protected.
  • It won’t affect the country although the central government gets dissolved.
  • Federalism allows the government to become more responsive to individual needs.
  • Federalism leads to political stability
  • Local governments can experiment wit policies and learn from failure.

With advantages comes disadvantages. Some of the disadvantages of Federalism (Federal system) have been highlighted below.

Disadvantages of the Federal System (Federalism).

  • Federalism is an expensive system and can be unsuitable for small countries.
  • Federalism brings in different states, different states means separation. Such fragmentation may threaten the indivisibility and integrity of a country.
  • Conflict may arise about the border issues between different states.
  • Misunderstanding and dispute may occur between the central government and the state government regarding the sharing of authorities and power.
  • Equal recognition cannot be provided to all the ethnic and marginal groups.
  • High chances of communal and ethnic violence.
  • May disturb social harmony

Also Read: Importance of Agriculture In Nepal

Very Short Questions

Define the federal democratic republican state.

The federal democratic-republican state is a democratic country having democratic federal States where the head of the state is elected from people’s representatives.

What is development?

Development means to make something better than it was. It is a positive transformation of society.

When was Nepal divided into development regions?

Nepal was divided into development regions in 2029 B.S.

Why was Nepal divided into development regions?

Nepal was divided into development regions to have equal and proportional development of all reasons.

Who is the father of the “Concept of regional development”?

Johance Althusian is the father of the concept of regional development

What is federalism?

Federalism is a political system where the country is divided into different autonomous States or provinces.

Write any benefit of federalism.

The benefit of federalism is the localization and decentralization of power and the rights of the central government. It motivates people to get involved in the development of their own region.

Write your opinion for or against federalism that contributes to the local development in a sentence.

To me, federalism contributes to local development because it enables local people to participate in developmental work.

When did the voice of people for the importance of federalism start?

The voice of people for the importance of federalism started strongly only after people’s movement 2062/2063.

Mention any two advantages rendered by the regional development concept.

Two advantages rendered by regional development concept are:

The practice of top-down development approach.
Emphasis on the opportunity to local people.

When was Nepal divided into 14 zones and 75 districts?

Nepal was divided into 14 zones and 75 districts on the 1st Baisakh 2018 B.S.

What is the total area of Nepal?

The total area of Nepal is 1,47,181 square kilometers.

In which district of province 3 do Chepangs community live?

The Chepangs live in Makwanpur district of province 3.

In which district do Chhantyal and Dura live?

Chhantyal and Dura live n Myagdi and Lamjung districts of Nepal.

How does federalism differ from the unitary system?

In a federal system, the central government and the provincial government share power. The provincial government has a lot of rights to run development projects inside the province. Unlike federalism, in a unitary system, the national government holds all the power.

Short Question Answers.

What is regional development?

Regional development is a broad term but it can be seen as a general effort to reduce regional disparities by supporting economic activities in regions.

In the past regional development, policy tended to try to achieve this objective by means of large scale infrastructure development and by attracting inward investment.

Regional development activities are always aimed at addressing regional problems and issues to development works which are best carried out at the regional level. Tt focuses on good practice in the support and promotion of development. This is taken as a part of an integrated geographical approach that is expressed at a regional scale involving regional stakeholders.

What is federalism?

Federalism is a form of government in which the constitution distributes power between the Central government and sub-divisional governments usually called States or provinces or republics.

In Nepal, we call them provinces. Lower entities such as metropolitan cities, municipalities, districts, and village councils are developed by the province, but they do not have sovereign power of their own. The central government holds the sovereign power of the provinces. Thus, the central and provincial governments both exercise direct authority over individuals. It means both the central government and the subdivisions have the power to make laws. Both have a certain level of autonomy from each other. Nepal has a federal system of governance consisting of the central or the federal government and the governments of the individual provinces.

Give the reasons for the development of the concept of the federal government. or Why was the concept of federal development introduced in Nepal? Give reasons.

The aspirations for proportionate development could not be achieved only through the concept of regional development. As a result, the concept of federal development came into existence especially after the people’s movement II of 2062/2063 because of the following reasons.

To provide an opportunity for the development of the local leadership.
To maintain a close relationship between the government and the people.
To exercise democracy completely.
To utilize available means and resources effectively.

What were the reasons behind dividing Nepal into different developmental regions?

The reasons behind dividing Nepal into different development regions were as follows.

To bring balanced development in the country by avoiding the regional disparity.
To help the government facilitate and accelerate the daily administrative affairs.
To maximize the use of means and resources throughout the country.
To fulfill the objectives of decentralization.
To bring uniformity in economic and social development.
To help the government for the smooth administration.
To identify various potentialities and exploit them.
To reduce disparities and create equality.

What were the reasons for the failure of the concept of the development region?

The reasons for the failure of the concept of development regions were as follows.

Inability to decentralize the power.
Corrupt administrative system.
Limited development projects.
Inability to practice democratic norms and values fully.

Write down any four functions of the central federal government.

Any four functions of the central government and federal government are as follows.|

Preparing national economic policy and implementing it.
Controlling and mobilizing the national army.
Controlling and directing the provincial government.
Determining foreign policy and foreign relations.
Maintaining border security and safeguarding national unity and sovereignty.


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